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In Upper Foundation Stage children begin to make the links between sounds and letters. They are encouraged to write in all areas of the provision. They are also given many opportunities during outside play to develop the gross and fine motor skills needed for writing. As they move through the school, children are systematically taught the skills to enable them to write a variety of texts confidently and independently through shared, guided and independent writing tasks with real audiences. Teachers aim to provide children with purposeful writing tasks and real audiences to enjoy their writing.

Through their lessons children develop the ability to speak confidently and clearly, listen attentively, and read and write for a range of purposes. Literacy is a core subject timetabled and taught discretely in its own right, however, literacy skills range across the curriculum and children will have many opportunities to use and develop them in other areas of the curriculum.


Speaking and Listening:

We want all our children to be confident communicators so. This begins in Upper Foundation Stage, where we ensure the children have access to a language rich environment, with plenty of opportunities to develop the ability to express themselves clearly and confidently. This continues throughout Key Stage One where children regularly take part in small group work that requires discussion and collaboration, as well as drama and role play activities. In Key Stage 2 children continue to develop their ability to communicate effectively and experience a range of drama activities, which require them to speak different contexts, considering their audience and the purpose of their speech.



We want all of our children to develop a love of reading, we provide them with opportunities to enjoy a rich variety of genres. Again this year, we will make a significant commitment to expand the range of books in our libraries and explore ways for greater access by pupils to the library.

Children from Upper Foundation Stage to Year 2 take part in a daily phonics session, using the 'Letters and Sounds ' programme which involves introducing new sounds to the children, and then providing them with an opportunity to apply and practice their new knowledge in their reading and writing. Children are encouraged to develop both fluency and understanding through discussions of the books they read with the adult they share it with.

In Key Stage Two, children continue to build on the skills they developed in Key Stage One. They are taught to read more challenging and lengthy texts and practice skills of deduction and inference.

 The core reading scheme used across school to support reading is 'Oxford Reading Tree'.


Key Stage 1

Key Stage 2

• Listen to traditional tales. • Listen to a range of texts. • Learn some poems by heart. • Become familiar with a wide range of texts of different lengths. • Discuss books. • Build up a repertoire of poems to recite. • Use the class and school libraries. • Listen to short novels over time.

• Read and listen to a wide range of styles of text, including fairy stories, myths and legends. • Listen to and discuss a wide range of texts. • Learn poetry by heart. • Increase familiarity with a wide range of books, including myths and legends, traditional stories, modern fiction, classic British fiction and books from other cultures. • Take part in conversations about books. • Learn a wide range of poetry by heart. • Use the school and community libraries. • Look at classification systems. • Look at books with a different alphabet to English. • Read and listen to whole books.


Learning Objectives:


  •  To read words accurately
  •  To understand texts


Milestone 1

Milestone 2

Milestone 3

To read words accurately

• Apply phonic knowledge and skills as the route to decode words.

• Respond speedily with the correct sound to graphemes (letters or groups of letters) for all 40+ phonemes, including, where applicable, alternative sounds for graphemes.

• Read accurately by blending sounds in unfamiliar words containing GPCs that have been taught.

• Read common exception words, noting unusual correspondences between spelling and sound and where these occur in the word.

• Read words containing taught GPCs and –s, –es, –ing, –ed, –er and –est endings.

• Read other words of more than one syllable that contain taught GPCs.

• Read words with contractions (for example, I’m, I’ll, we’ll) and understand that the apostrophe represents the omitted letter(s).

• Read aloud accurately books that are consistent with phonic knowledge and that do not require other strategies to work out words.

• Re-read these books to build up fluency and confidence in word reading.

• Read accurately by blending the sounds in words that contain the graphemes taught so far, especially recognising alternative sounds for graphemes.

• Read accurately words of two or more syllables that contain the same graphemes as above.

• Read words containing common suffixes.

• Read common exception words, noting unusual correspondences between spelling and sound and where these occur in the word.

• Read most words quickly and accurately, without overt sounding and blending, when they have been frequently encountered.

• Read aloud books closely matched to their improving phonic knowledge, sounding out unfamiliar words accurately, automatically and without undue hesitation.

• Re-read books to build up fluency and confidence in word reading.

• Apply a growing knowledge of root words, prefixes and suffixes (etymology and morphology). 

• Read further exception words, noting the spellings.

• Apply knowledge of root words, prefixes and suffixes. 

(Note: this should be through normal reading rather than direct teaching.)

To understand texts

• Discuss events.

• Predict events.

• Link reading to own experience.

• Join in with stories or poems.

• Check that reading makes sense and self-correct.

• Infer what characters are like from actions. 

• Ask and answer questions about texts.

• Discuss favourite words and phrases.

• Listen to and discuss a wide range of texts.

• Recognise and join in with (including role-play) recurring language.

• Explain and discuss understanding of texts. 

• Discuss the significance of the title and events.

• Make inferences on the basis of what is being said and done.

• Draw inferences from reading.

• Predict from details stated and implied.

• Recall and summarise main ideas.

• Discuss words and phrases that capture the imagination.

• Retrieve and record information from non-fiction, using titles, headings, sub-headings and indexes.

• Prepare poems and plays to read aloud with expression, volume, tone and intonation.

• Identify recurring themes and elements of different stories (e.g. good triumphing over evil).

• Recognise some different forms of poetry.

• Explain and discuss understanding of reading, maintaining focus on the topic.

• Draw inferences such as inferring characters’ feelings, thoughts and motives from their actions, and justifying inferences with evidence.

• Predict what might happen from details stated and implied.

• Identify main ideas drawn from more than one paragraph and summarise these.

• Identify how language, structure and presentation contribute to meaning.

• Ask questions to improve understanding of a text.

• Recommend books to peers, giving reasons for choices.

• Identify and discuss themes and conventions in and across a wide range of writing.

• Make comparisons within and across books.

• Learn a wide range of poetry by heart.

• Prepare poems and plays to read aloud and to perform, showing understanding through intonation, tone and volume so that the meaning is clear to an audience.

• Check that the book makes sense, discussing understanding and exploring the meaning of words in context.

• Ask questions to improve understanding.

• Draw inferences such as inferring characters’ feelings, thoughts and motives from their actions, and justifying inferences with evidence.

• Predict what might happen from details stated and implied.

• Summarise the main ideas drawn from more than one paragraph, identifying key details that support the main ideas.

• Identify how language, structure and presentation contribute to meaning.

• Discuss and evaluate how authors use language, including figurative language, considering the impact on the reader.

• Retrieve and record information from non-fiction.

• Participate in discussion about books, taking turns and listening and responding to what others say.





Key Stage 1

Key Stage 2


• Write stories set in places pupils have been. • Write stories with imaginary settings. • Write stories and plays that use the language of fairy tales and traditional tales.

• Write stories that mimic significant authors.

• Write narrative diaries.

• Write stories set in places pupils have been. • Write stories that contain mythical, legendary or historical characters or events. • Write stories of adventure. • Write stories of mystery and suspense. • Write letters. • Write plays. • Write stories, letters, scripts and fictional biographies inspired by reading across the curriculum.


• Write labels. • Write lists. • Write captions. • Write instructions. • Write recounts. • Write glossaries. • Present information. • Write non-chronological reports.

• Write instructions. • Write recounts. • Write persuasively. • Write explanations. • Write non-chronological reports. • Write biographies. • Write in a journalistic style. • Write arguments. • Write formally.


• Write poems that use pattern, rhyme and description. • Write nonsense and humorous poems and limericks.

• Learn by heart and perform a significant poem. • Write haiku. • Write cinquain. • Write poems that convey an image (simile, word play, rhyme and metaphor).


Only the following are statutory at KS1: 

  • personal experiences
  • real events
  • poetry
  • different purposes.

Only the following are statutory at KS2: 

  • narratives
  • non-fiction
  • poetry
  • different purposes.


Learning Objectives:




 To present neatly

 To spell correctly

 To punctuate accurately



 To write with purpose

 To use imaginative description

 To organise writing appropriately

 To use paragraphs

 To use sentences appropriately

Analysis and presentation


 To analyse writing

 To present writing





Milestone 1

Milestone 2

Milestone 3


To write with purpose

• Say first and then write to tell others about ideas.

• Write for a variety of purposes.

• Plan by talking about ideas and writing notes.

• Use some of the characteristic features of the type of writing used.

• Write, review and improve.

• Write for a wide range of purposes using the main 

   features identified in reading. 

• Use techniques used by authors to create characters and settings.

• Compose and rehearse sentences orally.

• Plan, write, edit and improve. 

• Identify the audience for writing.

• Choose the appropriate form of writing using the main features identified in reading. 

• Note, develop and research ideas.

• Plan, draft, write, edit and improve.

To use imaginative description

• Use adjectives to add detail. 

• Use names of people, places and things.

• Use well-chosen adjectives.

• Use nouns and pronouns for variety.

• Use adverbs for extra detail.

• Create characters, settings and plots.

• Use alliteration effectively.

• Use similes effectively.

• Use a range of descriptive phrases including some collective nouns. 


• Use the techniques that authors use to create characters, settings and plots.

• Create vivid images by using alliteration, similes, metaphors and personification.

• Interweave descriptions of characters, settings and atmosphere with dialogue.

To organise writing appropriately

• Re-read writing to check it makes sense.

• Use the correct tenses.

• Organise writing in line with its purpose. 

• Use organisational devices such as headings and sub headings.

• Use the perfect form of verbs to mark relationships of time and cause. 

• Use connectives that signal time, shift attention, inject suspense and shift the setting.

• Guide the reader by using a range of organisational devices, including a range of connectives.

• Choose effective grammar and punctuation and propose changes to improve clarity.

• Ensure correct use of tenses throughout a piece of writing.

To use paragraphs

• Write about more than one idea.

• Group related information.


• Organise paragraphs around a theme.

• Sequence paragraphs.


• Write paragraphs that give the reader a sense of clarity.

• Write paragraphs that make sense if read alone.

• Write cohesively at length.

To use sentences appropriately

• Write so that other people can understand the meaning of sentences.

• Sequence sentences to form a short narrative.

• Convey ideas sentence by sentence.

• Join sentences with conjunctions and connectives.

• Vary the way sentences begin. 

• Use a mixture of simple, compound and complex sentences.

• Write sentences that include:

      • conjunctions

      • adverbs

      • direct speech, punctuated correctly

      • clauses

      • adverbial phrases.

• Write sentences that include: 

      • relative clauses

      • modal verbs

      • relative pronouns

      • brackets

      • parenthesis

      • a mixture of active and passive voice

      • a clear subject and object

      • hyphens, colons and semi colons

      • bullet points. 


To present neatly

• Sit correctly and hold a pencil correctly.  

• Begin to form lower-case letters correctly.

• Form capital letters.

• Form digits 0-9.

• Understand letters that are formed in similar ways. 

• Form lower-case letters of a consistent size.

• Begin to join some letters. 

• Write capital letters and digits of consistent size. 

• Use spacing between words that reflects the size of the  letters.

• Join letters, deciding which letters are best left un-joined.

• Make handwriting legible by ensuring downstrokes of letters are parallel and letters are spaced appropriately.


• Write fluently and legibly with a personal style.

To spell correctly

• Spell words containing 40+ learned phonemes.

• Spell common exception words (the, said, one, two and the days of the week).

• Name letters of the alphabet in order. 

• Use letter names to describe spellings of words.

• Add prefixes and suffixes, learning the rule for adding s and es as a plural marker for nouns, and the third person singular marker for verbs (I drink - he drinks).

• Use the prefix un.

• Use suffixes where no change to the spelling of the root word is needed: helping, helped, helper, eating, quicker, quickest.

• Use spellings rules.

• Write simple sentences dictated by the teacher.

• Spell by segmenting words into phonemes and represent them with the 

   correct graphemes.

• Learn some new ways to represent phonemes.

• Spell common exception words correctly.

• Spell contraction words correctly (can’t, don’t).

• Add suffixes to spell longer words (-ment, -ness, -ful and -less).

• Use the possessive apostrophe. (singular) (for example, the girl's book)

• Distinguish between homophones and near-homophones. 

• Use prefixes and suffixes and understand how to add them. 

• Spell further homophones.

• Spell correctly often misspelt words. 

• Place the possessive apostrophe accurately in words with regular plurals (for example, girls’, boys’) and in words with irregular plurals (for example, children’s).

• Use the first two or three letters of a word to check its spelling in a dictionary.

• Write from memory simple sentences, dictated by the teacher, that include words and punctuation taught so far.

• Use prefixes, applying guidelines for adding them.

• Spell some words with silent letters (knight, psalm solemn).

• Distinguish between homophones and other words that are often confused.

• Use knowledge of morphology and etymology in spelling and understand that some words need to be learned specifically. 

• Use dictionaries to check spelling and meaning of words. 

• Use the first three or four letters of a word to look up the meaning or spelling of words in a dictionary.

• Use a thesaurus.

To punctuate accurately

• Leave spaces between words. 

• Use the word ‘and’ to join words and sentences.

• Begin to punctuate using a capital letter for the name of people, places, the days of the week and I.

• Use both familiar and new punctuation correctly, including full stops, capital letters, exclamation marks, question marks, commas for lists and apostrophes for contracted forms.


• Use sentences with different forms: statement, question, exclamation and command.

• Use extended noun phrases to describe and specify (e.g. the blue butterfly).

• Use subordination (when, if, that or because).

• Use coordination (or, and, but).

• Use some features of standard written English.

• Use the present and past tenses correctly, including the progressive form.

• Develop understanding of writing concepts by: 

    • Extending the range of sentences with more than one clause by using a wider range of conjunctions, including when, if, because, although. 

   • Using the present perfect form of verbs in contrast to the past tense. 

   • Choosing nouns or pronouns appropriately for clarity and cohesion and to avoid repetition. 


   • Using conjunctions, adverbs and prepositions to express time and cause. 

   • Using fronted adverbials.

• Indicate grammatical and other features by: 

   • Using commas after fronted adverbials. 

   • Indicating possession by using the possessive apostrophe with plural nouns. 

   • Using and punctuating direct speech.

• Develop understanding of writing concepts by: 

   • Recognising vocabulary and structures that are appropriate for formal speech and writing, including subjunctive forms. 

   • Using passive verbs to affect the presentation of information in a sentence. 


 • Using the perfect form of verbs to mark relationships of time and cause. 

   • Using expanded noun phrases to convey complicated information concisely. 

   • Using modal verbs or adverbs to indicate degrees of possibility. 

   • Using relative clauses beginning with who, which, where, when, whose, that or with an implied (i.e. omitted) relative pronoun.

• Indicate grammatical and other features by: 

   • Using commas to clarify meaning or avoid ambiguity in writing. 

   • Using hyphens to avoid ambiguity. 

   • Using brackets, dashes or commas to indicate parenthesis. 

   • Using semi-colons, colons or dashes to mark boundaries between independent clauses. 

   • Using a colon to introduce a list. 

   • Punctuating bullet points consistently.


Analysis and presentation

To analyse writing

• Discuss writing with the teacher and other pupils.

• Use and understand grammatical terminology in discussing writing:

      • word, sentence, letter, capital letter, full stop, punctuation, singular, plural, question mark, exclamation mark.

• Use and understand grammatical terminology in discussing writing:

      • verb, tense (past, present), adjective, noun, suffix, apostrophe, comma.

• Use and understand grammatical terminology when discussing writing and reading:

 Year 3

     • word family, conjunction, adverb, preposition, direct speech, inverted commas (or ‘speech marks’), prefix, consonant, vowel, clause, subordinate clause.

 Year 4

     • pronoun, possessive pronoun, adverbial.



• Use and understand grammatical terminology when discussing writing and reading:

Year 5

    • relative clause, modal verb, relative pronoun, parenthesis, bracket, dash, determiner, cohesion, ambiguity.

Year 6

    • active and passive voice, subject and object, hyphen, synonym, colon, semi-colon, bullet points.

To present writing

• Read aloud writing clearly enough to be heard by peers and the teacher.

• Read aloud with some intonation.


• Read aloud writing to a group or whole class, using appropriate intonation.

• Perform compositions, using appropriate intonation and volume.




Key Stage 1

Key Stage 2

• Engage in meaningful discussions in all areas of the curriculum.

• Listen to and learn a wide range of subject specific vocabulary.

• Through reading identify vocabulary that enriches and enlivens stories.

• Speak to small and larger audiences at frequent intervals.

• Practise and rehearse sentences and stories, gaining feedback on the overall effect and the use of standard English.

• Listen to and tell stories often so as to internalise the structure.

• Debate issues and formulate well-constructed points.


Learning Objectives


  •  To listen carefully and understand
  •  To develop a wide and interesting vocabulary
  •  To speak with clarity
  •  To tell stories with structure
  •  To hold conversations and debates



Milestone 1

Milestone 2

Milestone 3

To listen carefully and understand

• Sift information and focus on the important points.

• Seek clarification when a message is not clear.

• Understand instructions with more than one point.

• Engage in discussions, making relevant points.

• Ask for specific additional information to clarify.

• Understand the meaning of some phrases beyond the literal interpretation.

• Understand how to answer questions that require more than a yes/no or single sentence response.

• Recognise and explain some idioms.

• Understand irony (when it is obvious).

To develop a wide and interesting vocabulary

• Use subject specific vocabulary to explain and describe.

• Suggest words or phrases appropriate to the topic being discussed.

• Identify homophones.

• Use time, size and other measurements to quantify.

• Use interesting adjectives, adverbial phrases and extended noun phrases in discussion.

• Use vocabulary that is appropriate to the topic being discussed or the audience that is listening.

• Use adventurous and sophisticated vocabulary.

• Explain the meaning of words, offering alternatives.

• Use a wide range of phrases that include determiners, modifiers and other techniques to add extra interest and clarity.

To speak with clarity

• Speak in a way that is clear and easy to understand.

• Demonstrate good phonic knowledge by clearly pronouncing the sounds within words.

• Identify syllables within words.

• Use verbs with irregular endings.

• Use a mixture of sentence lengths to add interest to discussions and explanations.

• Use intonation to emphasise grammar and punctuation when reading aloud.

• Vary the length and structure of sentences.

• Ask questions and make suggestions to take an active part in discussions.

• Comment on the grammatical structure of a range of spoken and written accounts.

To tell stories with structure

• Ensure stories have a setting, plot and a sequence of events.

• Recount experiences with interesting detail.

• Predict events in a story.

• Give just enough detail to keep the audience engaged.

• Bring stories to life with expression and intonation.

• Read the audience to know when to add detail and when to leave it out.

• Narrate detailed and exciting stories.

• Use the conventions and structure appropriate to the type of story being told.

• Interweave action, character descriptions, settings and dialogue. 

To hold conversations and debates

• Take turns to talk, listening carefully to the contributions of others. 

• Vary language between formal and informal according to the situation.

• Add humour to a discussion or debate where appropriate. 

• Make relevant comments or ask questions in a discussion or a debate.

• Seek clarification by actively seeking to understand others’ points of view.

• Respectfully challenge opinions or points, offering an alternative.

• Negotiate and compromise by offering alternatives.

• Debate, using relevant details to support points.

• Offer alternative explanations when others don’t understand


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