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Geography and History

 

Geography:

 

Geography is an essential part of the curriculum, it provides a means of exploring, appreciating and understanding the world in which we live and how it has evolved. Geography explores the relationship between the Earth and its people through the study of place, space and environment. It contributes to the cultural, social, spiritual and moral life of children as they acquire knowledge of a range of different cultures and traditions, and learn tolerance and understanding of other people and environments

 

Geography is the subject in which pupils learn the skills of understanding a locality and how and where people fit into its overall structure. Developing geographical skills is essential as children live in a world that is wide open to them

 

With opportunities to travel and work in different cities and countries across the world, pupils need to use efficiently: maps, charts and other geographical data. The opportunities for the children to carry out geographical enquiry are also of value.

 

The teaching of Geography would be difficult without acknowledging the future of our planet. The Geography Curriculum places great importance on the interaction between the physical and the human environment. Many areas of study give opportunities to make children aware of these effects upon their surroundings, their own responsibilities and how they can contribute to improving the environment, however small that contribution might be.

 

 

Key Stage 1

Key Stage 2

• Investigate the world’s continents and oceans.

• Investigate the countries and capitals of the United Kingdom.

• Compare and contrast a small area of the United Kingdom with that of a non-European country.

• Explore weather and climate in the United Kingdom and around the world.

• Use basic geographical vocabulary to refer to and describe key physical and human features of locations.  

• Use world maps, atlases and globes.

• Use simple compass directions.

• Use aerial photographs.

• Use fieldwork and observational skills.

• Locate the world’s countries, with a focus on Europe and countries of particular interest to pupils.

• Locate the world’s countries, with focus on North and South America and countries of particular interest to pupils. 

• Identify key geographical features of the countries of the United Kingdom, and show an understanding of how some of these aspects have changed over time. 

• Locate the geographic zones of the world.

• Understand the significance of the geographic zones of the world.

• Understand geographical similarities and differences through the study of human and physical geography of a region or area of the United Kingdom (different from that taught at Key Stage 1).

• Understand geographical similarities and differences through the study of human and physical geography of a region or area in a European country. 

• Understand geographical similarities and differences through the study of the human and physical geography of a region or area within North or South America.

• Describe and understand key aspects of:

     • physical geography, including: climate zones, biomes and vegetation belts, rivers,   

       mountains,  volcanoes and earthquakes and the water cycle

     • human geography, including: settlements, land use, economic activity including trade  

       links and the distribution of natural resources including energy, food, minerals and

       water supplies.

• Use maps, atlases, globes and digital/computer mapping to locate countries and describe features studied.

• Use the eight points of a compass, four-figure grid references, symbols and keys (including the use of Ordnance Survey maps) to build knowledge of the United Kingdom and the world.

• Use a wide range of geographical sources in order to investigate places and patterns.

• Use fieldwork to observe, measure and record the human and physical features in the local area using a range of methods, including sketch maps, plans and graphs and digital technologi

 

Learning Objectives

 

  •  To investigate places
  •  To investigate patterns
  •  To communicate geographically

 

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Milestone 1

 

Milestone 2

 

Milestone 3

To investigate places

• Ask and answer geographical questions (such as: What is this place like? What or who will I see in this place? What do people do in this place?).

• Identify the key features of a location in order to say whether it is a city, town, village, coastal or rural area.

• Use world maps, atlases and globes to identify the United Kingdom and its countries, as well as the countries, continents and oceans studied.

• Use simple fieldwork and observational skills to study the geography of the school and the key human and physical features of its surrounding environment.

• Use aerial images and plan perspectives to recognise landmarks and basic physical features.

• Name, locate and identify characteristics of the four countries and capital cities of the United Kingdom and its surrounding seas.

• Name and locate the world’s continents and oceans.

• Ask and answer geographical questions about the physical and human characteristics of a location.

• Explain own views about locations, giving reasons.

• Use maps, atlases, globes and digital/computer mapping to locate countries and describe features.

• Use fieldwork to observe and record the human and physical features in the local area using a range of methods including sketch maps, plans and graphs and digital technologies.

• Use a range of resources to identify the key physical and human features of a location. 

• Name and locate counties and cities of the United 

Kingdom, geographical regions and their identifying human and physical characteristics, including hills, mountains, cities, rivers, key topographical features and land-use patterns; and understand how some of these aspects have changed over time. 

• Name and locate the countries of Europe and identify their main physical and human characteristics.

• Collect and analyse statistics and other information in order to draw clear conclusions about locations.

• Identify and describe how the physical features affect the human activity within a location.

• Use a range of geographical resources to give detailed descriptions and opinions of the characteristic features of a location.

• Use different types of fieldwork sampling (random and systematic) to observe, measure and record the human and physical features in the local area. Record the results in a range of ways. 

• Analyse and give views on the effectiveness of different geographical representations of a location (such as aerial images compared with maps and topological maps - as in London’s Tube map).

• Name and locate some of the countries and cities of the world and their identifying human and physical characteristics, including hills, mountains, rivers, key topographical features and land-use patterns; and understand how some of these aspects have changed over time.

• Name and locate the countries of North and South America and identify their main physical and human characteristics.

To investigate patterns

• Understand geographical similarities and differences through studying the human and physical geography of a small area of the United Kingdom and of a contrasting non-European country.

• Identify seasonal and daily weather patterns in the United Kingdom and the location of hot and cold areas of the world in relation to the Equator and the North and South Poles. 

• Identify land use around the school.

• Name and locate the Equator, Northern Hemisphere, Southern Hemisphere, the Tropics of Cancer and Capricorn, Arctic and Antarctic Circle and date time zones. Describe some of the characteristics of these geographical areas.

• Describe geographical similarities and differences between countries.

• Describe how the locality of the school has changed over time. 

• Identify and describe the geographical significance of latitude, longitude, Equator, Northern Hemisphere, Southern Hemisphere, the Tropics of Cancer and Capricorn, Arctic and Antarctic Circle, and time zones (including day and night).

• Understand some of the reasons for geographical similarities and differences between countries.

• Describe how locations around the world are changing and explain some of the reasons for change.

• Describe geographical diversity across the world.

• Describe how countries and geographical regions are interconnected and interdependent.

To communicate geographically

• Use basic geographical vocabulary to refer to: 

  • key physical features, including: beach, coast, forest, hill, mountain, ocean, river, soil, valley, vegetation and weather. 
  • key human features, including: city, town, village, factory, farm, house, office and shop.

• Use compass directions (north, south, east and west) and locational language (e.g. near and far) to describe the location of features and routes on a map.

• Devise a simple map; and use and construct basic symbols in a key. Use simple grid references (A1, B1).

• Describe key aspects of: 

  • physical geography, including: rivers, mountains, volcanoes and earthquakes and the water cycle. 
  • human geography, including: settlements and land use.

• Use the eight points of a compass, four-figure grid references, symbols and key to communicate knowledge of the United Kingdom and the wider world.

• Describe and understand key aspects of: 

  • physical geography, including: climate zones, biomes and vegetation belts, rivers, mountains, volcanoes and earthquakes and the water cycle. 
  • human geography, including: settlements, land use, economic activity including trade links, and the distribution of natural resources including energy, food, minerals, and water supplies.

• Use the eight points of a compass, four-figure grid references, symbols and a key (that uses standard Ordnance Survey symbols) to communicate knowledge of the United Kingdom and the world.

• Create maps of locations identifying patterns (such as: land use, climate zones, population densities, height of land).

History:

 

History is about real people who lived, and real events which happened in the past. History is concerned with sequence, time and chronology and is the study of evidence about the past; it gives us a sense of identity, set within our social, political, cultural and economic relationships. History fires the children's curiosity about the past in Britain and the wider world and plays an essential part in preparing us for living and working in the contemporary world. Pupils consider how the past influences the present, what past societies were like, how these societies organised their politics, and what beliefs and cultures influenced people's actions.

 

As they do this, children develop a chronological framework for their knowledge of significant events and people. They see the diversity of human experience, and understand more about themselves as individuals and members of society. What they learn can influence their decisions about personal choices, attitudes and values.

 

In history, children find evidence, weigh it up and reach their own conclusions. To do this they need to be able to research, sift through evidence, and argue for their point of view - skills that are prized in adult life.

 

 

Key Stage 1

Key Stage 2

Look at:

• The lives of significant individuals in Britain’s past who have contributed to our nation’s achievements - scientists such as Isaac Newton or Michael Faraday, reformers such as Elizabeth Fry or William Wilberforce, medical pioneers such as William Harvey or Florence Nightingale, or creative geniuses such as Isambard Kingdom Brunel or Christina Rossetti.

• Key events in the past that are significant nationally and globally, particularly those that coincide with festivals or other events that are commemorated throughout the year.

• Significant historical events, people and places in their own locality.

 

• Changes in Britain from the Stone Age to the Iron Age. 

• The Roman Empire and its Impact on Britain.

• Britain’s settlement by Anglo Saxons and Scots.

• The Viking and Anglo Saxon struggle for the Kingdom of England.

• A local history study. 

• A study of a theme in British history. 

• Early Civilizations achievements and an in-depth study of one of the following: Ancient Sumer; The Indus Valley; Ancient 

Egypt; The Shang Dynasty. 

• Ancient Greece.

• A non- European society that contrasts with British history 

chosen from: 

    • Early Islamic Civilization 

    • Mayan Civilization 

    • Benin.

History of interest to pupils*

 

* Items marked * are not statutory.

 

Learning Objectives

 

  •  To investigate and interpret the past
  •  To build an overview of world history
  •  To understand chronology
  •  To communicate historically

 

 

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Milestone 1

Milestone 2

Milestone 3

To investigate and interpret the past

• Observe or handle evidence to ask questions and find answers to questions about the past.

• Ask questions such as: What was it like for people? What happened? How long ago?

• Use artefacts, pictures, stories, online sources and databases to find out about the past.

• Identify some of the different ways the past has been represented.

• Use evidence to ask questions and find answers to questions about the past.

• Suggest suitable sources of evidence for historical enquiries.

• Use more than one source of evidence for historical enquiry in order to gain a more accurate understanding of history.

• Describe different accounts of a historical event, explaining some of the reasons why the accounts may differ.

• Suggest causes and consequences of some of the main events and changes in history.

• Use sources of evidence to deduce information about the past.

• Select suitable sources of evidence, giving reasons for choices.

• Use sources of information to form testable hypotheses about the past.

• Seek out and analyse a wide range of evidence in order to justify claims about the past.

• Show an awareness of the concept of propaganda and how historians must understand the social context of evidence studied.

• Understand that no single source of evidence gives the full answer to questions about the past.

• Refine lines of enquiry as appropriate.

To build an overview of world history

• Describe historical events.

• Describe significant people from the past.

• Recognise that there are reasons why people in the past acted as they did.

• Describe changes that have happened in the locality of the school throughout history.

• Give a broad overview of life in Britain from ancient until medieval times.

• Compare some of the times studied with those of other areas of interest around the world.

• Describe the social, ethnic, cultural or religious diversity of past society.

• Describe the characteristic features of the past, including ideas, beliefs, attitudes and experiences of men, women and children.

• Identify continuity and change in the history of the locality of the school.

• Give a broad overview of life in Britain from medieval until the Tudor and Stuarts times.

• Compare some of the times studied with those of the other areas of interest around the world. 

• Describe the social, ethnic, cultural or religious diversity of past society.

• Describe the characteristic features of the past, including ideas, beliefs, attitudes and experiences of men, women and children.

To understand chronology

• Place events and artefacts in order on a time line.

• Label time lines with words or phrases such as: past, present, older and newer.

• Recount changes that have occurred in their own lives.

• Use dates where appropriate.

• Place events, artefacts and historical figures on a time line using dates.

• Understand the concept of change over time, representing this, along with evidence, on a time line.

• Use dates and terms to describe events.

• Describe the main changes in a period of history (using terms such as: social, religious, political, technological and cultural).

• Identify periods of rapid change in history and contrast them with times of relatively little change.

• Understand the concepts of continuity and change over time, representing them, along with evidence, on a time line.

• Use dates and terms accurately in describing events.

 

To communicate historically

• Use words and phrases such as: a long time ago, recently, when my parents/carers were children, years, decades and centuries to describe the passing of time.

• Show an understanding of the concept of nation and a nation’s history.

• Show an understanding of concepts such as civilisation, monarchy, parliament, democracy, and war and peace.

• Use appropriate historical vocabulary to communicate, including: 

    • dates 

    • time period 

    • era 

    • change 

    • chronology.

• Use literacy, numeracy and computing skills to a good standard in order to communicate information about the past.

• Use appropriate historical vocabulary to communicate, including: 

    • dates 

    • time period 

    • era 

    • chronology 

    • continuity 

    • change 

    • century 

    • decade 

    • legacy.

• Use literacy, numeracy and computing skills to a exceptional standard in order to communicate information about the past.

• Use original ways to present information and ideas.

 

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